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҆koda Auto

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҆koda Auto a.s.
TypeSubsidiary
IndustryAutomotive
PredecessorLaurin & Klement
Founded1925; 97 years ago
FounderVáclav Laurin & Václav Klement
Headquarters

,

Area served
Worldwide (except Japan and North America)
Key people
  • Klaus Zellmer¬†(Chairman of the Board of Management)
  • Alain Favey¬†(Member of the Board of Management)
  • Karsten Schnake¬†(Member of the Board of Management)
ProductsAutomobiles
Electric vehicles
Production output
Decrease c. 802,000 units (2021)[1][2]
RevenueIncrease¬†‚ā¨17.7 billion¬†(2021)[2]
(CZK 422.6 billion)[1]
Increase¬†‚ā¨1.08 billion¬†(2021)[1][2]
(CZK 26.21 billion)[1]
Increase CZK 22.41 billion (2021)[1]
Total assetsIncrease CZK 231.46 billion (2021)[1]
Total equityIncrease CZK 101.52 billion (2021)[1]
Number of employees
Increase 36,032 (2021)[1]
ParentVolkswagen Group
Divisions҆koda Motorsport
Subsidiaries҆koda Auto Deutschland GmbH
҆koda Auto Volkswagen India
҆koda Auto Slovensko s.r.o.
҆koda Auto ńĆesk√° republika
Websiteskoda-auto.com
Footnotes / references
[1][2]

҆koda Auto a.s.¬†(Czech pronunciation:¬†[ňą Ékoda]¬†(listen)), often shortened to¬†Ň†koda, is a Czech¬†automobile¬†manufacturer established in 1925 as the successor to¬†Laurin & Klement¬†and headquartered in¬†Mlad√° Boleslav,¬†Czech Republic.¬†Ň†koda Works¬†became¬†state owned¬†in 1948. After 1991, it was gradually¬†privatized¬†to the German¬†Volkswagen Group, becoming a partial¬†subsidiary¬†in 1994 and a wholly owned subsidiary in 2000.[3][4]

҆koda automobiles are sold in over 100 countries and in 2018, total global sales reached 1.25 million units, an increase of 4.4% from the previous year.[5]¬†The operating profit was ‚ā¨1.6 billion in 2017, an increase of 34.6% over the previous year.[6][7]¬†As of 2017, ҆koda’s profit margin was the second highest of all¬†Volkswagen AG¬†brands after¬†Porsche.[8]

History[edit]

The¬†Ň†koda Works¬†were established as an¬†arms manufacturer¬†in 1859. ҆KODA AUTO (and its predecessor Laurin & Klement) is the fifth-oldest company producing cars, and has an unbroken history alongside¬†Daimler,¬†Opel,¬†Peugeot, and¬†Tatra.[9]

Laurin & Klement[edit]

Founders Václav Klement (left) and Václav Laurin (1895)

Laurin & Klement Type A (1905)

As with many long-established¬†car manufacturers, the company which would become ҆koda Auto started in the early 1890s by manufacturing bicycles.[10]¬†Ň†koda (then Laurin & Klement) factories were founded in 1896 as a¬†velocipede¬†manufacturer.[11]

In 1894¬†(128¬†years ago), 26-year-old¬†V√°clav Klement¬†(1868‚Äď1938), who was a bookseller in¬†Mlad√° Boleslav,¬†Kingdom of Bohemia¬†(today’s Czech Republic, then part of¬†Austria-Hungary), was unable to obtain spare parts to repair his German bicycle. Klement returned his bicycle to the manufacturers, Seidel and Naumann, with a letter, in Czech, asking them to carry out repairs, only to receive a reply, in German, stating: “If you want us to answer you, we insist that you convey your message in a language we understand.”[12]¬†Not satisfied with the reply and realising the business potential, Klement, despite having no technical experience, decided to start a bicycle repair shop, which V√°clav Laurin and he opened in 1896 in Mlad√° Boleslav. Before going into partnership with Klement, Laurin was an established bicycle manufacturer in the nearby town of¬†Turnov.[13]

In 1898, after moving to their newly built factory, the pair bought a¬†Werner “Motocyclette”.[nb 1]¬†Laurin & Klement’s first motorcyclette, powered by an engine mounted on the handlebars driving the front wheels, proved dangerous and unreliable ‚Äď an early accident on it cost Laurin a front tooth. To design a safer machine with its structure around the engine, the pair wrote to German ignition specialist¬†Robert Bosch¬†for advice on a different electromagnetic system.[citation needed]

Their new Slavia motorcycle made its debut in 1899, and the company became the first motorcycle factory in Central Europe.[11] In 1900, with a company workforce of 32, Slavia exports began and 150 machines were shipped to London for the Hewtson firm. Shortly afterwards, the press credited them as makers of the first motorcycle.[14][15]

By 1905, the firm was manufacturing automobiles, making it the second-oldest car manufacturer in the Czech lands after Tatra. The company, with an area of 7,800 square metres (0.78 ha), had a workforce of 320 and used 170 special machine tools, power-driven by 100 horsepower (75 kW) of steam power.[11] The first model, Voiturette A, was a success and the company was established both within Austria-Hungary and internationally.[16]

҆koda[edit]

҆koda 422 (1929)

After World War I, the Laurin & Klement company began producing trucks, but in 1924, after running into problems and being affected by a fire on their premises, the company sought a new partner.

Meanwhile,¬†Akciov√° spoleńćnost, dŇô√≠ve ҆kodovy z√°vody¬†(Limited Company, formerly the ҆koda Works), an arms manufacturer and multisector concern in¬†Pilsen, which had become one of the largest industrial enterprises in Europe and the largest in¬†Czechoslovakia, sought to enlarge its non-arms manufacturing base, so acquired Laurin & Klement in 1925. It also started manufacturing cars in cooperation with¬†Hispano-Suiza. Most of the later production took place under ҆koda’s name.

Portrait
Engineer and industrialist¬†Emil ҆koda
Car logo detail
҆koda logo in 1930s

An assembly line was used for production from 1930 onwards. In the same year, a formal spin-off of the car manufacture into a new company,¬†Akciov√° spoleńćnost pro automobilov√Ĺ prŇĮmysl¬†or abbreviated¬†ASAP, took place. ASAP remained a wholly owned subsidiary of the ҆koda Works, and continued to sell cars under the ҆koda marque. Apart from the factory in Mlad√° Boleslav, it included also the firm’s representation, sales offices, and services, as well as a central workshop in Prague. At the time, the car factory in Mlad√° Boleslav covered an area of 215,000 m2¬†and employed 3,750 blue-collar and 500 white-collar workers.

After a decline caused by the economic depression, ҆koda introduced a new line of cars in the 1930s which significantly differed from its previous products. A new design of chassis with¬†backbone tube¬†and all-around independent suspension was developed under the leadership of chief engineer¬†Vladim√≠r MatouŇ°¬†and modelled on the one first introduced by¬†Hans Ledwinka¬†in Tatra. First used on model ҆koda 420 Standard in 1933, it aimed at solving insufficient torsional stiffness of the¬†ladder frame.[17]

The new design of chassis became the basis for models¬†Popular¬†(845‚Äď1,089 cc),¬†Rapid¬†(1,165‚Äď1,766 cc),¬†Favorit¬†(1,802‚Äď2,091 cc), and¬†Superb¬†(2,492‚Äď3,991 cc).[17]¬†While in 1933 ҆koda had a 14% share of the Czechoslovak car market and occupied third place behind¬†Praga¬†and Tatra, the new line made it a market leader by 1936, with a 39% share in 1938.[17]

World War II[edit]

During the¬†occupation of Czechoslovakia¬†in World War II, the ҆koda Works were turned into part of the¬†Reichswerke Hermann G√∂ring¬†serving the Nazi German war effort by producing components for military terrain vehicles, military planes, other weapons components and cartridge cases. Vehicle output decreased from 7,052 in 1939 to 683 in 1944, of which only 35 were passenger cars. Between January and May 1945, 316 trucks were produced.[18]¬†The UK and US air forces bombed the ҆koda works repeatedly between 1940 and 1945. The final massive air raid took place on 25 April 1945, and resulted in the almost complete destruction of the ҆koda armament works and about 1,000 dead or injured.[19]

Post World War II[edit]

҆koda 1101 Tudor Roadster (1949)

When, by July 1945, the Mlad√° Boleslav factory had been reconstructed, production of ҆koda’s first post-World War II car, the 1101 series, began. It was essentially an updated version of the pre-World War II ҆koda Popular. In the autumn of 1948, ҆koda (along with all other large manufacturers) became part of the communist¬†planned economy, which meant it was separated from the parent company, ҆koda Works. In spite of unfavourable political conditions and losing contact with technical development in noncommunist countries, ҆koda retained a good reputation until the 1960s, producing models such as the ҆koda 440 Spartak, 445 Octavia,¬†Felicia, and ҆koda 1000 MB.[20][attribution needed][editorialising]

҆koda Octavia Super (1960)

In late 1959, the ҆koda Felicia, a compact four-cylinder convertible coupe, was imported into the United States for model year 1960. Its retail price was around US$2,700, for which one could purchase a V8 domestic car that was larger, more comfortable, and had more luxury and convenience features (gasoline retailed for less than 30 cents per US gallon, so fuel economy was not of primary importance in the United States at that time). Those Felicias that made it to American ownership soon had a number of reliability problems, further damaging the car’s reputation. The Felicia was, therefore, a poor seller in the U.S., and leftover cars ended up being hied off at a fraction of the original retail list. Since that time, ҆koda automobiles have not been imported into the U.S. for retail sale.[citation needed]

҆koda MB 1000 (1966)

In the late 1980s, ҆koda (then named¬†Automobilov√© z√°vody, n√°rodn√≠ podnik¬†or abbreviated¬†AZNP) was still manufacturing cars that conceptually dated back to the 1960s.¬†Rear-engined¬†models such as the¬†Ň†koda 105/120¬†(Estelle) and¬†Rapid¬†sold steadily and performed well against more modern makes in races such as the¬†RAC Rally¬†in the 1970s and 1980s. They won their class in the RAC rally for 17 years running. They were powered by a 130¬†brake horsepower¬†(97¬†kW), 1,289¬†cubic centimetres¬†(78.7¬†cu¬†in) engine. In spite of its dated image and becoming the subject of negative jokes ‚Äď What do you call a ҆koda with a sunroof? A¬†skip!¬†‚Äď ҆kodas remained a common sight on the roads of the United Kingdom and Western Europe throughout the 1970s and 1980s.[21]

Sport versions of the Estelle and earlier models were produced, using the name “Rapid”. Soft-top versions were also available. The Rapid was once described as the “poor man’s Porsche”,[22]¬†and had significant sales success in the UK during the 1980s.[21]

To drivers in the UK, the vehicles which chugged off ҆koda‚Äės production line in Pilsen, Czechoslovakia, embodied all that was wrong with the¬†planned economies¬†of the Soviet satellite states. Of course, that the ҆koda became such a figure of fun was in part due to its ubiquity on Britain’s roads. The company must have been doing something right.

‚ÄĒ‚ÄČBBC report on ҆koda sales in the 1980s.[21]

In 1987, the¬†Favorit¬†was introduced, and was one of a trio of compact front-wheel drive hatchbacks from the three main Eastern Bloc manufacturers around that time, the others being¬†VAZ‘s¬†Lada Samara¬†and¬†Zastava‘s¬†Yugo Sana. The Favorit’s appearance was the work of the Italian design company¬†Bertone. With some motor technology licensed from western Europe, but still using the ҆koda-designed 1289¬†cc engine, ҆koda engineers designed a car comparable to western production. The technological gap was still there, but began closing rapidly. The Favorit was very popular in Czechoslovakia and other¬†Eastern Bloc¬†countries. It also sold well in Western Europe, especially in the UK and Denmark due to its low price and was regarded as solid and reliable. However, it was perceived as having poor value compared with contemporary Western European designs. The Favorit’s trim levels were improved and it continued to be sold until the introduction of the Felicia in 1994.

Volkswagen Group subsidiary[edit]

The¬†Ň†koda Felicia¬†from 1994 was the first new model after takeover by Volkswagen Group.

Until 1990, ҆koda was still making its outdated range of rear-engined small family cars, although it had started production of the¬†Favorit¬†front-wheel drive hatchback in 1987 as an eventual replacement.

The¬†fall of communism¬†with the¬†Velvet Revolution¬†brought great changes to Czechoslovakia, and most industries were subject to¬†privatization. In the case of ҆koda Automobile, the state authorities brought in a strong foreign partner. The tender for privatization was announced in 1990; 24 different companies were registered for the tender, while only eight of them expressed a serious interest ‚ÄstBMW,¬†GM,¬†Renault,¬†Volvo,¬†Volkswagen,¬†Ford,¬†Fiat, and¬†Mercedes-Benz. In August 1990, VW and Renault were on the shortlist.[4]

Renault first offered to terminate Favorit production and replace it with the outdated¬†Renault 18¬†derivative and new¬†Renault Twingo, which would have eliminated the ҆koda brand. This offer was declined and Renault prepared a new one. They offered a 60:40¬†joint venture¬†(40% share of Renault), while ҆koda Favorit production was to be retained and produced side by side with the¬†Renault 19, and producing engine units, gearboxes, and other components for Renault. Total investment would have been US$2.6 billion (US$5 billion in 2019).[4]

Volkswagen offered to continue Favorit production and preserve the ҆koda brand, including retention of research and development. Volkswagen offered a purchase of 30% ҆koda share, gradually increasing to 70%. Volkswagen’s total investment would have been US$6.6 billion (US$14 billion in 2019) by 2000. The government inclined on the Renault side, while the ҆koda¬†trade union¬†preferred VW, because it offered significantly larger potential for development of the company.[4]

Volkswagen was chosen by the¬†Czech government¬†on 9 December 1990,[23]¬†and as a result, on 28 March 1991 a joint-venture partnership agreement with Volkswagen took place, marked by the transfer of a 30% share to the Volkswagen Group on 16 April 1991, raised later on 19 December 1994 to 60.3% and the year after, on 11 December 1995, to 70% of its shares, with the aim of making VW the largest and controlling shareholder of ҆koda.[24]¬†On 30 May 2000, Volkswagen AG bought the remaining 30% of the company, thus making ҆koda Auto a wholly owned¬†subsidiary¬†of the group.

Backed by Volkswagen Group expertise and investments, the design ‚Äď both style and engineering ‚Äď has improved greatly. The 1994 model Felicia was effectively a reskin of the Favorit, but quality and equipment improvements helped, and in the Czech Republic, the car was perceived as good value for money and became popular. Sales improved across Europe,[4]¬†including the United Kingdom, where the Felicia was one of the best-ranking cars in customer satisfaction surveys.

The Octavia is the bestselling ҆koda.

Volkswagen AG chairman¬†Ferdinand Pi√ęch¬†personally chose¬†Dirk van Braeckel¬†as head of design, and the subsequent Octavia and Fabia models made their way to the demanding European Union markets. They are built on common¬†Volkswagen Group floorpans. The Fabia, launched at the end of 1999, formed the basis for later versions of the¬†Volkswagen Polo¬†and¬†SEAT Ibiza, while the Octavia, launched in 1996, has shared its floorpan with a host of cars, the most popular of which is the¬†Volkswagen Golf Mk4.

The perception of ҆koda in Western Europe has completely changed since the takeover by VW,[25]¬†in stark comparison with the reputation of the cars throughout the 1980s described by some as “the laughing stock” of the automotive world.[26][27]¬†As technical development progressed and attractive new models were marketed, ҆koda’s image was initially slow to improve. In the UK, a major change was achieved with the ironic “It is a ҆koda, honest” campaign, which began in 2000 when the Fabia launched. In a 2003 advertisement on British television, a new employee on the production line is fitting ҆koda badges on the car bonnets. When some attractive-looking cars come along, he stands back, not fitting the badge, since they look so good they “cannot be ҆kodas”.[28]¬†This market campaign worked by confronting ҆koda’s image problem head-on ‚Äď a tactic which marketing professionals regarded as high risk. By 2005, ҆koda was selling over 30,000 cars a year in the UK, a market share over 1%. For the first time in its UK history, a waiting list developed for deliveries from ҆koda. UK owners have consistently ranked the brand at or near the top of customer satisfaction surveys since the late 1990s.

In 1991, ҆koda built 172,000 units, exporting 26% of its production to 30 countries, while in 2000, it built 435,000 units, exporting 82% of its production to 72 countries.[29]

Growth strategy[edit]

҆koda Auto plant in¬†Mlad√° Boleslav

One of the most important years for ҆koda Auto was 2010, in terms of both products and management. On 1 September 2010, Prof. Dr. H.C. Winfried Vahland assumed responsibility for the management of the company, becoming the CEO of ҆koda Auto. In the same year, ҆koda set forth plans to double the company’s annual sales to at least 1.5 million by 2018 (later known as the ‘Growth Strategy’,¬†Czech:¬†RŇĮstov√° strategie).[30]

At the¬†2010 Paris Motor Show¬†in September 2010, the company unveiled the Octavia Green E Line. This e-car concept was the forerunner to the e-car test fleet that ҆koda released in 2012. The final first-generation¬†Octavia¬†(Tour) was produced at the Mlad√° Boleslav plant in November 2010. The worldwide production of this model exceeded 1.4 million units since its release in 1996. In 2010 for the first time in history, China overtook German sales to become ҆koda’s largest individual market.[31]

In 2011, ҆koda Auto celebrated its 20-year partnership with the Volkswagen Group. More than 75,000 visitors attended an open-house event held in Mlad√° Boleslav in the April. Earlier that year, the company provided details on its 2018 Growth Strategy: for at least one new or completely revised model to be released every six months.[32][33]¬†With this in mind, the company redesigned its logo and¬†CI, which was presented at the 2011¬†Geneva Motor Show. ҆koda’s main attraction at the event was the VisionD¬†design concept, a forerunner to the future third-generation Octavia. ҆koda presented the MissionL¬†design study at the¬†IAA in Frankfurt am Main¬†in September, which was to become the basis of the company’s forthcoming compact model the European¬†Rapid.

҆koda Auto is one of the largest car manufacturers in Central Europe. In 2014, 1,037,200 cars were sold worldwide, a record for the company.

In the same year, the company started production of the new¬†Rapid¬†model in Pune, India (October 2011), and launched the¬†Ň†koda Citigo¬†at Volkswagen’s Bratislava plant (November 2011).

In 2012, ҆koda introduced two new mass production models. The¬†European version of the Rapid¬†premiered at the¬†Paris Motor Show. This car was a successor to the first-generation Octavia in terms of its price bracket. The second model was the third-generation Octavia, which premiered in December 2012. In the same month, local production of the Yeti was launched at the Nizhny Novgorod GAZ factory.[34]

In 2012, ҆koda, introduced an emission-free (on the street) fleet of Octavia Green E Line e-cars on Czech roads to be used by external partners. Since internal tests on the fleet in late 2011, the e-fleet had driven more than 250,000¬†km. During the same year, ҆koda celebrated several milestones, including 14 million ҆koda cars being produced since 1905 (January),[35]¬†three million Fabias (May),[36]¬†500,000 Superbs at the Kvasiny plant (June),[37]¬†and 5 years of ҆koda operations in China.[34]

Massive rejuvenation of the model range was a major tune for 2013 at ҆koda: The Czech car maker launched the third-generation Octavia Combi and Octavia RS (both liftback and estate), as well as facelifted Superb and Superb Combi. They were accompanied by brand new members of the Rapid family as the Rapid Spaceback, the first ҆koda hatchback car in the compact segment, and the Chinese version of the Rapid. The Yeti also faced significant changes. With the facelift, two design variants of ҆koda’s compact SUV are now available, the city-likeoriented Yeti and rugged Yeti Outdoor. Chinese customers were also given a Yeti with an extended wheelbase.

Part of the board of directors at the¬†Geneva Motor Show¬†with ҆koda Vision X (2018): from left Christian Strube, Klaus-Dieter Sch√ľrmann, Alain Favey, Bernhard Maier, Michael Oeljeklaus and Dieter Seemann

In 2015, Volkswagen admitted that it had installed pollution-cheating software in many of its cars to fool regulators that its cars met emissions standards, when in fact they polluted at much higher levels than government standards. About 1.2 million ҆koda cars worldwide were fitted with this emissions-cheating device.[38]¬†Ň†koda stated that Volkswagen would recall and cover refitting costs for all of the cars affected by the¬†scandal.

In 2015, ҆koda was voted the most reliable car brand in the UK.[39]¬†A corporate strategy was launched in 2015 to produce a range of all-electric cars from 2019.[40]

҆koda Auto started to manufacture the large, seven-seat¬†SUV¬†Ň†koda Kodiaq¬†in 2016,[41]¬†it was introduced at the Paris Motor Show in October 2016,[42]¬†and sales began at early 2017. In the second half of 2017, sales began of the new compact SUV¬†Ň†koda Karoq, which officially replaced the¬†Ň†koda Yeti. The automaker introduced in December 2018 a new small family car, the¬†Ň†koda Scala. In February 2019, the company introduced in¬†Geneva¬†the new¬†subcompact crossover¬†Ň†koda Kamiq.

Electrification strategy[edit]

The fully electric¬†Ň†koda Enyaq iV¬†has been produced since November 2020, and six fully electric models are to be available by 2025.

In 2015, new ҆koda chairman Bernhard Maier stated that the Volkswagen Group “is working on a modular, new electric platform and we are in the team”, and “there is no alternative to electrification.”[40]¬†New ҆koda corporate “Strategy 2025”, which replaces the previous “Strategy 2018”, aims to start production of a fully electric vehicle in 2020,[40]¬†and five electric models across different segments by 2025.[43]

The all-electric¬†Ň†koda Enyaq iV¬†available for sale since September 2020. In 2017,Auto Shanghai, ҆koda displayed its Vision E concept for an all-electric 300-bhp¬†coup√©-SUV,[44]¬†with¬†level 3 autonomy¬†capability and 500 kilometres (310¬†mi) range.[45]¬†It is based on the¬†VW MEB platform¬†and ҆koda Auto will also manufacture¬†electric-vehicle batteries¬†for the Volkswagen Group in its facility in the Czech Republic.[46]¬†The second development stage, the ҆koda Vision iV, was revealed in March 2019.

A¬†plug-in hybrid¬†car, the¬†Ň†koda Superb iV, was available for sale from early 2020,[47]¬†and a small SUV model ҆koda Kamiq with a¬†natural gas-electric hybrid powertrain and a hybrid Fabia from later the same year.[40][48][49]¬†By March 2018, the electrification plan was expanded to 10 electrified models for 2025 – six fully electric cars and four plugin-hybrids. Out of these, five models are to be available by 2020.[50]¬†In 2018, the brand launched its largest-ever investment plan of ‚ā¨2 billion over five years into its electrification.[51]

The brand’s first fully electric car, a¬†city car¬†Ň†koda Citigo e iV, was sold from early 2020.[52][53]

Sales and markets[edit]

҆koda has maintained sound financial stability over recent years. In 2013, the brand achieved sales revenues totalling ‚ā¨10.3 billion (2012: ‚ā¨10.4 billion). Due to the weak economic situation in many European countries and the expansion of the model range, operating profit reached a modest ‚ā¨522 million (2012: ‚ā¨712 million). ҆koda achieved a successful start to 2014. As well as recording the highest number of deliveries to customers in a first quarter ever (247,200; up 12.1%), it recorded a significant increase in sales revenue (23.7%) to almost ‚ā¨3 billion. Operating profit increased 65.2% to ‚ā¨185 million over the previous year.

Sales figures[edit]

Model
҆koda Felicia‚Äč
҆koda Octavia‚Äč
҆koda Fabia‚Äč
҆koda Superb‚Äč
҆koda Roomster‚Äč
҆koda Yeti‚Äč
҆koda Rapid‚Äč
҆koda Citigo‚Äč
҆koda Kodiaq‚Äč
҆koda Karoq‚Äč
҆koda Kamiq‚Äč
҆koda Scala‚Äč
҆koda Enyaq iV‚Äč
҆koda Kushaq‚Äč
Total
1994[54]1995[55]1996[56]1997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012[57]2013[58]20142015[6]2016[59]20172018[5]2019[60]2020[60]2021[61]
172,000210,000261,000288,458261,127241,256148,50044,963‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚Äď‚Äď
‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí47,876102,373143,251158,503164,134164,017165,635181,683233,322270,274309,951344,857317,335349,746387,200409,360359,600389,300432,300436,300418,800388,200363,722257,364200,771
‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí823128,872250,978264,641260,988247,600236,698243,982232,890246,561264,173229,045266,800255,025202,000160,500192,400202,800206,500190,900172,793105,45999,104
‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí17716,86723,13522,39222,09120,98920,53025,64544,54898,873116,700106,84794,40091,10080,200139,100150,900138,100104,75586,15166,146
‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí14,42266,66157,46747,15232,33236,00039,24933,30029,60016,600‚ąí‚ąí‚Äď‚Äď
‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí11,01852,60470,30090,95282,400102,90099,50095,60069,50013,100102
‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí1,7009,292103,800221,400194,300212,800211,500191,500142,11879,70263,657
‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí50936,68745,20042,50040,20040,70037,10039,20031,19914,9714,373
‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí100,000149,200171,794131,59098,566
‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí6,300115,700152,708137,223119,156
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Markets[edit]

Worldwide sales of ҆koda cars

As of August 2016, ҆koda was being sold in 102 countries.[62]¬†In 2020, the top markets for ҆koda by number of sales were China (173,300), Germany (161,775), Russia (94,632), Czech Republic (83,249), Great Britain (58,431) and Poland (56,152).[60]¬†In the¬†Asia-Pacific¬†region, ҆koda is also being sold in Australia, New Zealand, Taiwan, Brunei and India. ҆koda is also planning to expand into Iran, where imports are to be started from 2018 and production of vehicles by 2020.[63]¬†Expansion strategy also includes Singapore.[64]

Production[edit]

҆koda cars are now made in factories in the Czech Republic, China, Russia, India and Slovakia. A smaller number of ҆koda models are additionally manufactured in¬†√Ėskemen, Kazakhstan and¬†Solomonovo, Ukraine through local partners. The following table lists the factories and their production models in 2019.[65][66]

Manufacturing plantProduction modelsLocationOperator[67]
Mlad√° Boleslav¬†(Czech Republic)Fabia, Octavia, Kamiq, Karoq, Scala, Enyaq iV50.421111¬įN 14.930556¬įE҆KODA AUTO a.s.
Kvasiny¬†(Czech Republic)Superb, Kodiaq, Karoq,¬†SEAT Ateca50.204722¬įN 16.257778¬įE
Vrchlab√≠¬†(Czech Republic)Transmissions50.610972¬įN 15.624444¬įE
Bratislava¬†(Slovakia)Citigo48.234135¬įN 16.98791¬įEVOLKSWAGEN SLOVAKIA, a.s. (VW AG subsidiary)
Pune¬†(India)Kushaq, Slavia18.74228667¬įN 73.81853167¬įE҆koda Auto India Pvt Ltd.¬†(҆koda Auto a.s. subsidiary)
Aurangabad¬†(India)Octavia, Superb19.873056¬įN 75.488333¬įE
Kaluga¬†(Russia)Rapid54.574444¬įN 36.344444¬įEOOO Volkswagen Group Rus (VW AG subsidiary)
Nizhny Novgorod¬†(Russia)Karoq, Kodiaq, Octavia56.242235¬įN 43.887655¬įEOOO Avtomobilnyj zavod ¬ęGAZ¬Ľ¬†(GAZ Group¬†subsidiary)
Anting¬†(China)Fabia, Kamiq, Kamiq GT31.295833¬įN 121.177778¬įESAIC Volkswagen Automotive Company, Ltd. (VW AG joint venture)
Yizheng¬†(China)Rapid (China)32.28959667¬įN 119.2043183¬įE
Ningbo¬†(China)Octavia, Karoq30.3412579¬įN 121.3237526¬įE
Nanjing¬†(China)Superb31.9465982¬įN 118.7962963¬įE
Changsha¬†(China)Kodiaq28.170958¬įN 113.176422¬įE

Motorsport[edit]

҆koda 966 Supersport (1950) in ҆koda Museum

With¬†Ň†koda Fabia R5, ҆koda Motorsport team won the¬†2015,¬†2016,¬†2017¬†and¬†2018 World Rally Championship-2, which focuses on production-based cars.

The ҆koda brand has been engaged in motor sport since 1901, and has gained a number of titles with various vehicles around the world. The team had competed as a manufacturer in the¬†Intercontinental Rally Challenge¬†(before it merged with ERC in 2013) and¬†World Rally Championship¬†between 1999 and 2005. Now it competes in the¬†European Rally Championship¬†and¬†WRC-2.

Until the final season of IRC in 2012, ҆koda Motorsport was the most successful manufacturer with a total of 27 points, winning the rallying series in 2010‚Äď2012. Since 2013, When the two competing series were merged, it continued to compete in the European Rally Championship.

҆koda Motorsport drivers won with the¬†Ň†koda Fabia S2000¬†the European Rally Championships in 2012‚Äď2014.

World Rally Championship[edit]

Following a long history of class victories in lower levels of motorsport, ҆koda became a participant in the¬†FIA¬†World Rally Championship in the¬†1999 season, with¬†World Rally Car¬†models of the ҆koda Octavia. ҆koda’s best result with the Octavia WRC was¬†Armin Schwarz‘s third place at the 2001¬†Safari Rally. From mid¬†2003, the Octavia was replaced by the smaller ҆koda Fabia. ҆koda used the¬†2004 season¬†to develop the car further, but did not achieve much success the¬†following season. However, at the season-ending¬†Rally Australia, 1995¬†world champion¬†Colin McRae¬†was running second before retiring. ҆koda then withdrew from the series, and the¬†2006 season¬†saw ҆koda represented by the semi-privateer¬†Red Bull¬†Ň†koda Team.¬†Jan Kopeck√Ŭ†drove the Fabia WRC to fifth place at the¬†Rally Catalunya, and as late as the¬†2007 Rallye Deutschland¬†the Fabia still achieved a fifth-place result, again in the hands of Kopeck√Ĺ. Former works¬†Ford¬†and¬†Citroen¬†driver¬†Fran√ßois Duval¬†also drove a Fabia WRC in 2006 for the privateer First Motorsport team, achieving a sixth-place finish in Catalunya.

World Rally Championship-2[edit]

In 2009, ҆koda entered the¬†Intercontinental Rally Challenge¬†(IRC) for the first time, using the Fabia S2000, winning three rallies and finishing second in both the drivers and manufacturers championship. In 2010, ҆koda won a total of seven IRC events winning both the manufacturers and driver championship for¬†Juho H√§nninen. These achievements were repeated in the following two seasons, with¬†Andreas Mikkelsen¬†as the drivers’ champion. In 2013, the Intercontinental Rally Challenge was merged with the¬†European Rally Championship¬†(ERC) and the team gained the drivers’ championship title once again for¬†Jan Kopeck√Ĺ. The car was also raced by privateers in several championships, including Red Bull, Barwa, Rene Georges and Rufa in the 2010¬†Super 2000 World Rally Championship.

҆koda Motorsport¬†won the 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018¬†WRC-2¬†championships with¬†Ň†koda Fabia R5.

Bonneville Speedway[edit]

In August 2011, a special ҆koda Octavia vRS set a world record at the¬†Bonneville Speedway¬†and became the fastest production car in the world with an engine up to two litres, when it hit 227¬†mph (365¬†km/h).[68]¬†The current fastest production ҆koda car is the¬†Ň†koda Superb III, with a top speed of 250¬†km/h (160¬†mph) and an acceleration from 0 to 100¬†km/h (0 to 62¬†mph) in 5.8 seconds.

Current models[edit]

[edit]

In 1923, two different trademarks were registered at the Office for Innovation and Model Registration in¬†PlzeŇą. The first depicted a winged arrow pointing to the right with five feathers in a circle and the second was a winged arrow with three feathers. The famous winged arrow with three feathers still forms the ҆koda logo today. The¬†Ň†KODA¬†text was added to the logo in 1936. The arrow represents speed, the wings progress and freedom, the eye precision and the circle unity, completeness, world and harmony.[69][70]¬†The story goes that, on his travels through the US,¬†Emil ҆koda¬†had once been so taken with a Native American’s feathered headdress that he had returned to¬†Pilsen¬†with a relief image which inspired the logo.[71]

See also[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^¬†More information about the Werner motor bicycles:¬†Twycross, Tony (April 2005).¬†“Auto Cycling, 1890s Style”. The Moped Archive.

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  71. ^¬†Jetschgo, Johannes (2019).¬†Ň†koda. A Car That Made History. Prague: Vitalis. p.¬†40.¬†ISBN¬†9783899196528.

Cite error: A¬†list-defined reference¬†named “҆KODA Financial Results 2017” is not used in the content (see the¬†help page).

Cite error: A¬†list-defined reference¬†named “҆KODA Annual Report 2016” is not used in the content (see the¬†help page).

General and cited references[edit]

  • Margolius, Ivan & Meisl, Charles (1992).¬†Ň†koda Laurin & Klement. London: Osprey.¬†ISBN¬†1-85532-237-4.
  • Jetschgo, Johannes (2019).¬†Ň†koda: A Car That Made History. Prague: Vitalis.¬†ISBN¬†978-3-89919-652-8

External links[edit]