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Wallet (disambiguation)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Look up wallet or billfold in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
A wallet is a small, flat case that can be used to carry personal items.

Wallet or The Wallet may also refer to:

Contents
1 Arts, entertainment, and media
1.1 Literature
1.2 Motion pictures
1.3 Music
2 Electronic commerce
3 See also
Arts, entertainment, and media
Literature
“Al-Mahfaza” (“The Wallet”), a story by Yusuf Idris
The Wallet of Kai Lung, a collection of fantasy stories by Ernest Bramah 1900
The Wallet of Time, a publication by William Winter, in two volumes 1913
Motion pictures
The Wallet (film), British film 1952, released as Blueprint for Danger in the US
“The Wallet” (Seinfeld)
“The Wallet”, an episode of the Maude TV series, 1974
Music
“Wallet”, by Plaid from Reachy Prints
“Wallet”, a song by Regina Spektor from Far
The Wallets, a band from the Twin Cities 1980s
Electronic commerce
Apple Wallet, a mobile app included with the Apple iOS operating system
Crypto wallet, a digital wallet where private keys are stored for cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin
Digital wallet, an electronic device or online service that allows an individual to make electronic or online payment transactions
Google Wallet, a peer-to-peer payments service developed by Google
Microsoft Wallet, a mobile payment and digital wallet service by Microsoft
Online wallet, an online service that allows an individual to make online payment transactions
See also
Wallet sciatica
Disambiguation icon
This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Wallet.
If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.
Categories: Disambiguation pages.

Digital wallet
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Find sources: “Digital wallet” – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (August 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor’s personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. (August 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
A digital wallet, also known as an e-wallet, is an electronic device, online service, or software program that allows one party to make electronic transactions with another party bartering digital currency units for goods and services. This can include purchasing items either online or at the point of sale in a brick and mortar store, using either mobile payment (on a smartphone or other mobile device) or (for online buying only) using a laptop or other personal computer. Money can be deposited in the digital wallet prior to any transactions or, in other cases, an individual’s bank account can be linked to the digital wallet. Users might also have their driver’s license, health card, loyalty card(s) and other ID documents stored within the wallet. The credentials can be passed to a merchant’s terminal wirelessly via near field communication (NFC).

Increasingly, digital wallets are being made not just for basic financial transactions but to also authenticate the holder’s credentials. For example, a digital wallet could verify the age of the buyer to the store while purchasing alcohol. The system has already gained popularity in Japan, where digital wallets are known as “wallet mobiles”.[1]

A cryptocurrency wallet is a digital wallet where private keys are stored for cryptocurrencies like bitcoin.

Contents
1 Technology
2 Security
3 See also
4 References
5 External links
Technology
A digital wallet has both a software and information component. Secure and fair electronic payment systems are important issue.[2] The software provides security and encryption for the personal information and for the actual transaction. Typically, digital wallets are stored on the client side and are easily self-maintained and fully compatible with most e-commerce websites. A server-side digital wallet, also known as a thin wallet, is one that an organization creates for and about you and maintains on its servers. Server-side digital wallets are gaining popularity among major retailers due to the security, efficiency, and added utility it provides to the end-user, which increases their satisfaction of their overall purchase.[3] The information component is basically a database of user-input information. This information consists of your shipping address, billing address, payment methods (including credit card numbers, expiry dates, and security numbers), and other information.

Digital wallets are composed of both digital wallet devices and digital wallet systems. There are dedicated digital wallet devices such as the biometric wallet by Dunhill,[4] a physical device that holds cash and cards along with a Bluetooth mobile connection. Presently there are further explorations for smartphones with NFC digital wallet capabilities, such as smartphones utilizing Google’s Android and Apple’s iOS operating systems to power wallets such as Google Pay and Apple Pay.[5]

Digital wallet systems enable the widespread use of digital wallet transactions among various retail vendors in the form of mobile payments systems and digital wallet applications. The M-PESA mobile payments system and microfinancing service has widespread use in Kenya and Tanzania,[6] while the MasterCard PayPass application has been adopted by a number of vendors in the U.S. and worldwide.[7]

Digital wallets are being used more frequently among Asian countries as well. One in every five consumers in Asia are now using a digital wallet, representing a twofold increase from two years ago. A MasterCard mobile shopping survey among 8500 adults, aged 18–64 across 14 markets, showed that 45% of users in China, 36.7% of users in India and 23.3% of users in Singapore are the biggest adopters of digital wallets. The survey was conducted between October and December 2015. Further analysis showed that 48.5% of consumers in these regions made purchases using smartphones. Indian consumers are leading the way with 76.4% using a smartphone to make a purchase, which is a drastic increase of 29.3% from the previous year. This has inspired companies like Reliance and Amazon India to come out with their own digital wallet. Flipkart has already introduced its own digital wallet.[8]

Security
Consumers are not required to fill out order forms on each site when they purchase an item because the information has already been stored and is automatically updated and entered into the order fields across merchant sites when using a digital wallet. Consumers also benefit when using digital wallets because their information is encrypted or protected by a private software code; merchants benefit by receiving a combination of protection against fraud, faster receipt of payment, decreased transaction costs, and decreased theft loss.

Digital wallets are available to consumers free of charge, and they’re fairly easy to obtain. For example, when a consumer makes a purchase at a merchant site that’s set up to handle server-side digital wallets, they type their name, payment and shipping information into the merchant’s own form. At the end of the purchase, the consumer is asked to sign up for a wallet of their choice by entering a user name and password for future purchases. Users can also acquire wallets at a wallet vendor’s site.

Although a wallet is free for consumers, vendors charge merchants for wallets. Some wallet vendors make arrangements for merchants to pay them a percentage of every successful purchase directed through their wallets. In other cases, digital wallet vendors process the transactions between cardholders and participating merchants and charge merchants a flat fee.[citation needed]

See also
Universal credit card
Cryptocurrency wallet
References
Clark, Sarah. “NTT Docomo to take Japanese mobile wallet global”. NFC World. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
“SAGE Journals: Your gateway to world-class journal research”. doi:10.1177/1748301817727123.
Miklesh Prasad Yadav, Madhu Arora (2019). Study on impact on customer satisfaction for E-wallet using path analysis model. International Journal of Information Systems & Management Science. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
Murphy, David. “Dunhill Wallet Uses Biometrics”. PC Magazine. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
“Understanding Digital Wallets”. Alliedwallet. August 5, 2018. Retrieved March 23, 2013.[1]
“Dial M for money”. The Economist. June 30, 2007. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
“PayPass Adoption Study”. MasterCard Advisors. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
Chanchani, Madhav (7 March 2016). “Amazon India planning launch of digital wallet in a bid to build online payments business” – via The Economic Times.
External links
RFC 4112: ECML specification
vte
Mobile payment software
Active
2C2PAdyenAlipayAmazon PayApple CashApple PayAtom TechnologiesBancomat PaybKashBokuCarta WorldwideCash AppCDS GlobalCircleEasypaisaEnStreamEnsygniaEServGlobalFitbit PayFreeChargeGarmin PayGCash by AlipayGoogle Pay Google Pay appGoogle WalletGopayInterac e-TransferJazzCashJumioKakaoPayLine PayMayaMir PayMobiKwikMobile SuicaMobilePayMopayM-PesaNagadNPCI IMPSUPI BHIMNaver PayNEFTOrange MoneyOsaifu-KeitaiOxigen ServicesPayAnywherePaymPayMatePayMePaytmPayPal BraintreeiZettlePaydiantVenmoPixPayNowPayPayPayworldPhonePeQiwiRevolutSamsung PaySpice DigitalSwishTouch ‘n Go eWalletUnionPay appVippsWave MoneyWeChat PayWizzitYooMoneyZelle
Defunct
AirTagBell IDCurrentCFortumoGoogle Wallet (2011-2018)KuapayLemon WalletLG PayMicrosoft PayPingitSimpaySoftcardTagpayTezvcashZappZnap
Category
Categories: Digital currenciesPayment systems

Web3

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Ne doit pas ĂȘtre confondu avec le Web sĂ©mantique, parfois qualifiĂ© de Web 3.0, ou avec HTTP/3, la troisiĂšme version du principal protocole du World Wide Web

Le Web3 est un terme utilisĂ© pour dĂ©signer l’idĂ©e d’un web dĂ©centralisĂ© exploitant la technologie des chaĂźnes de blocs (blockchain), se voulant ainsi le successeur du Web 2.0, terme utilisĂ© pour dĂ©signer le web « social »1.

Bien qu’impliquant une critique du Web 2.0 pour sa centralisation des donnĂ©es des utilisateurs et de l’oligopole des plateformes2, le Web3 embryonnaire tel qu’il existe en 2022 n’est pas Ă  l’abri de la centralisation et consolidation de ces quelques acteurs en oligopole3.

Origines
L’acception du Web3 est aujourd’hui diffĂ©rente du concept de 1999 de Tim Berners-Lee pour un web sĂ©mantique4. En 2006, Berners-Lee a dĂ©crit le Web sĂ©mantique comme un composant du Web 3.0, qui est diffĂ©rent du terme Web3 dans le contexte des crypto-monnaies4.

Le terme « Web3 » a Ă©tĂ© premiĂšrement utilisĂ© par le fondateur de Polkadot et le cofondateur d’Ethereum, Gavin Wood, en 2014, faisant rĂ©fĂ©rence Ă  un « Ă©cosystĂšme en ligne dĂ©centralisĂ© basĂ© sur la blockchain »5. En 2021, l’idĂ©e d’un Web3 a gagnĂ© en popularitĂ©, en particulier vers la fin de 20216, en grande partie en raison de l’intĂ©rĂȘt des enthousiastes de crypto-monnaies et des grands investisseurs6,7. Des dirigeants de la sociĂ©tĂ© de capital risque Andreessen Horowitz sont allĂ©s voir le gouvernement AmĂ©ricain en octobre 2021 pour faire pression en faveur du Web3 comme solution potentielle aux questions sur la rĂ©glementation du Web8.

Certains auteurs faisant référence au concept de décentralisation du Web emploient également le terme de « Web3 », ou encore plus couramment de « Web 3.0 »9.

Concept
Les dĂ©finitions du Web3 diffĂšrent, et le terme a Ă©tĂ© dĂ©crit par Bloomberg comme « flou », mais elles tournent autour de l’idĂ©e de dĂ©centralisation et intĂšgrent gĂ©nĂ©ralement des technologies de blockchain, telles que diverses crypto-monnaies ou jetons non fongibles (NFT)6.

Bloomberg dĂ©crit le Web3 comme une idĂ©e qui « construirait des actifs financiers sous forme de jetons dans le fonctionnement interne de presque toute activitĂ© sur Internet »10. La crĂ©ation de ces jetons permettrait, en plus de l’aspect dĂ©centralisĂ©, un bĂ©nĂ©fice important pour les sociĂ©tĂ©s en leur permettant de crĂ©er un mĂ©canisme extrĂȘmement puissant d’incitation et d’alignement des intĂ©rĂȘts entre elles et leurs clients11. Ce mĂ©canisme s’incarne parfaitement avec le concept d’organisations autonomes dĂ©centralisĂ©es (DAOs)12 . La finance dĂ©centralisĂ©e (DeFi) est un autre concept clĂ©, oĂč les utilisateurs Ă©changent de l’argent sans intervention bancaire ou gouvernementale6.

L’identitĂ© auto-souveraine permet aux utilisateurs de s’identifier sans s’appuyer sur un systĂšme d’authentification tel qu’OAuth, dans lequel une autoritĂ© de confiance doit ĂȘtre contactĂ©e13. Des spĂ©cialistes ont fait valoir que le Web3 fonctionnerait probablement en tandem avec les sites Web 2.0, et que ceux-ci intĂ©greront certaines technologies du Web3 afin d’amĂ©liorer leurs services14.

RĂ©ception
Les spĂ©cialistes et journalistes ont souvent dĂ©crit le Web3 comme une solution potentielle aux prĂ©occupations de plus en plus prĂ©sentes au regard de la centralisation excessive de Web aux mains de quelques grandes entreprises6,8. Certains pensent que le Web3 pourrait amĂ©liorer la sĂ©curitĂ© et la confidentialitĂ© des donnĂ©es au-delĂ  de ce qui est actuellement possible avec les plateformes Web 2.015. Bloomberg dĂ©clare que ceux qui sont sceptiques trouvent que le Web3 « est loin d’ĂȘtre utilisable au-delĂ  d’un nombre limitĂ© d’applications, dont beaucoup sont des outils destinĂ©s aux nĂ©gociateurs de crypto »16. The New York Times a rapportĂ© que plusieurs investisseurs parient 27 milliards de dollars sur le fait que Web3 « est l’avenir d’Internet »17,18.

Certaines entreprises Web 2.0, dont Reddit et Discord, ont explorĂ© l’intĂ©gration de technologies Web3 sur leurs plateformes6,19. Le 8 novembre 2021, le PDG Jason Citron a tweetĂ© une capture d’Ă©cran suggĂ©rant que Discord explorait l’intĂ©gration de portefeuilles de crypto-monnaies. Deux jours plus tard, aprĂšs une forte rĂ©action de ses utilisateurs19,20, Discord a annoncĂ© qu’il n’avait pas l’intention d’intĂ©grer de telles technologies et qu’il s’agissait uniquement d’un concept interne dĂ©veloppĂ© dans le cadre d’un hackathon20. Le 20 janvier 2022, Twitter a mis en place une nouvelle fonctionnalitĂ© pour permettre aux abonnĂ©s du service payant Twitter Blue de montrer leurs jetons non fongibles sur leur photo de profil21.

Certains spĂ©cialistes en droit citĂ©s par The Conversation ont exprimĂ© des inquiĂ©tudes quant Ă  la difficultĂ© de rĂ©glementer un Web dĂ©centralisĂ©, qui, selon eux, pourrait rendre plus difficile la prĂ©vention de la cybercriminalitĂ©, du cyberharcĂšlement, des discours de haine et de la pĂ©dopornographie9. Mais, il dĂ©clare Ă©galement que « [le Web dĂ©centralisĂ©] reprĂ©sente les espoirs du passĂ© selon lesquels Internet briserait les structures de pouvoir existantes ». Certaines autres critiques sur le Web3 voient le concept comme faisant partie d’une bulle des crypto-monnaies et de tendances basĂ©es sur la blockchain qu’ils considĂšrent comme surmĂ©diatisĂ©es19. Certains ont exprimĂ© des inquiĂ©tudes quant Ă  l’impact environnemental des crypto-monnaies et des jetons non fongibles (NFTs)22, mĂȘme si la preuve d’enjeu permet aujourd’hui de rĂ©duire leur impact environnemental23. D’autres ont exprimĂ© leur conviction que le Web3 et les technologies associĂ©es facilitent la rĂ©alisation de ventes pyramidales7.

Références
Web 3.0: The Future Architecture of the Internet? [archive] Cybersecurity, Privacy, & Networks eJournal. Social Science Research Network.
« Qu’est-ce que le Web3 et comment il pourrait changer la face d’Internet » [archive], sur www.lesnumeriques.com, 3 janvier 2022 (consultĂ© le 16 janvier 2022)
(en) Scott Nover, « Web3 is not the decentralized utopia you’ve been promised » [archive], sur Quartz (consultĂ© le 17 mars 2022)
(en-US) Victoria Shannon, « A ‘more revolutionary’ Web », The New York Times,‎ 23 mai 2006 (ISSN 0362-4331, lire en ligne [archive], consultĂ© le 27 fĂ©vrier 2022)
(en-US) Gilad Edelman, « What Is Web3, Anyway? », Wired,‎ 3 dĂ©cembre 2021 (ISSN 1059-1028, lire en ligne [archive], consultĂ© le 27 fĂ©vrier 2022)
(en) Aaron Mak, « What Is Web3 and Why Are All the Crypto People Suddenly Talking About It? » [archive], sur Slate Magazine, 9 novembre 2021 (consulté le 27 février 2022)
(en-US) Max Read, « Why Your Group Chat Could Be Worth Millions » [archive], sur Intelligencer, 24 octobre 2021 (consulté le 27 février 2022)
(en) Lauren Feiner, « Prominent Silicon Valley VC firm Andreessen Horowitz embarks on major crypto policy push in Washington » [archive], sur CNBC, 13 octobre 2021 (consulté le 27 février 2022)
(en) Edina Harbinja et Vasileios Karagiannopoulos, « Web 3.0: the decentralised web promises to make the internet free again » [archive], sur The Conversation (consulté le 27 février 2022).
« Bloomberg – Are you a robot? » [archive], sur www.bloomberg.com (consultĂ© le 27 fĂ©vrier 2022)
« Mais à quoi servent les business Web 3 ? » [archive] AccÚs libre, sur Radioaktif (consulté le 11 avril 2022)
« Crypto Is Cool. Now Get on the Yacht », The New York Times,‎ 16 dĂ©cembre2021 (web.archive.org, consultĂ© le 27 fĂ©vrier 2022).
(en) « Web3 — A vision for a decentralized web » [archive], sur The Cloudflare Blog, 1er octobre 2021 (consultĂ© le 27 fĂ©vrier 2022)
(en) « People are talking about Web3. Is it the Internet of the future or just a buzzword? », NPR.org,‎ 21 janvier 2022 (lire en ligne [archive], consultĂ© le 27 fĂ©vrier 2022)
(en) Javad Zarrin, Hao Wen Phang, Lakshmi Babu Saheer et Bahram Zarrin, « Blockchain for decentralization of internet: prospects, trends, and challenges », Cluster Computing, vol. 24, no 4,‎ 1er dĂ©cembre 2021, p. 2841–2866 (ISSN 1573-7543, PMID 34025209, PMCID PMC8122205, DOI 10.1007/s10586-021-03301-8, lire en ligne [archive], consultĂ© le 27 fĂ©vrier 2022)
« Bloomberg – Are you a robot? » [archive], sur www.bloomberg.com (consultĂ© le 27 fĂ©vrier 2022)
« Welcome to ‘Web3.’ What’s That? – The New York Times | Ghostarchive » [archive], sur ghostarchive.org (consultĂ© le 27 fĂ©vrier 2022)
(en) « Investors are betting $27 billion that Web3 is the future of the internet » [archive], sur Fortune (consulté le 27 février 2022)
(en-US) « NFTs and crypto wallets could be in Discord’s future » [archive], sur TechCrunch (consultĂ© le 27 fĂ©vrier 2022)
(en-US) « Discord pushes pause on exploring crypto and NFTs amidst user backlash » [archive], sur TechCrunch (consulté le 27 février 2022)
« Twitter : vous pourrez montrer à tout le monde que vous possédez un NFT » [archive], sur Presse Citron (consulté le 20 juin 2022)
(en) Eva Szalay in London, « EU should ban energy-intensive mode of crypto mining, regulator says », Financial Post,‎ 19 janvier 2022 (lire en ligne [archive], consultĂ© le 27 fĂ©vrier 2022)
(en) « Cryptocurrency goes green: Could ‘proof of stake’ offer a solution to energy concerns? » [archive], sur NBC News (consultĂ© le 27 fĂ©vrier 2022)
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CatĂ©gorie : World Wide Web[+]

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